It will be argued here that the cosmological constant problem exists because of the way the vacuum is defined in quantum field theory. It has been known for some time that for QFT to be gauge invariant certain termsâ€”such as part of the vacuum polarization tensor must be eliminated either explicitly or by some form of regularization followed by renormalization. It has recently been shown that lack of gauge invariance is a result of the way the vacuum is defined, and redefining the vacuum so that the theory is gauge invariant may also offer a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

## Charge, geometry, and effective mass

Foundations of Physics Vol. 38, pp. 293-300 (2008).

The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10701-008-9209-1

Charge, like mass in Newtonian mechanics, is an irreducible element of electromagnetic theory that must be introduced *ab initio*. Its origin is not properly a part of the theory. Fields are then defined in terms of forces on either masses–in the case of Newtonian mechanics, or charges in the case of electromagnetism. General Relativity changed our way of thinking about the gravitational field by replacing the concept of a force field with the curvature of space-time. Mass, however, remained an irreducible element. It is shown here that the Reissner-Nordstrom solution to the Einstein field equations tells us that charge, like mass, has a unique space-time signature.

## The Infinite Red-Shift Surfaces of the Kerr Solution

In contrast to the Schwarzschild solution, the infinite red shift surfaces and null surfaces of the Kerr solution to the axially-symmetric Einstein field equations are distinct. Some unusual infinite red shift surfaces for observers following the time-like Killing vector are displayed here for the Kerr and Kerr-Newman solution. Some similarities of the latter to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution are also discussed.

Journal of Physics & Astronomy Vol. 2, Issue 4.

## Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society

Articles appearing in Physics & Society

Bombs, Reprocessing, and Reactor-Grade Plutonium (April 2006)

Coauthor: George S. Stanford (PDF)

Nuclear Power and Proliferation (January 2006)

Coauthor: George S. Stanford (PDF)

Purex and Pyro are not the Same (July 2004)

Coauthors: William H. Hannum and George S. Stanford (PDF)

Gaps in the APS Position on Nuclear Energy (April 2002)

Coauthor: George S. Stanford (PDF)

## Topology in Electromagnetics

Topology in Electromagnetics is a chapter in *Frontiers in Electromagnetics*, edited by Douglas H. Werner and Raj Mittra (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2000).

The link to the book is:

http://www.amazon.com/Frontiers-Electromagnetics-Series-Microwave-Technology/dp/0780347013

## Comment on “The Speed of Gravity”

Physics Letters A Vol. 262, pp. 257-260 (1999)

Coauthor: Charles Nissim-Sabat

Comment on an article by Van Flandern on the speed of gravity. Van Flandern argues that the speed of gravity must be greater than 2 X 10^10 c. We show this is not the case.

## Monopoles, gauge fields and de Rham’s theorems

J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 31 (1998) 7077-7094 (PDF)

The topology assumed by most authors for a spacelike hypersurface in a spacetime containing a monopole is generally Euclidean 3-space minus the origin; save for the spherical surface isolating the monopole, this space is unbounded. For such a topology, a consistency relation of de Rham’s theorems shows that a single isolated monopole cannot exist. Monopoles, with charge +/- m, if they exist at all, must occur in pairs having opposite magnetic charge. An extension of de Rham’s theorems to non-Abelian monopoles which are generalizations of Dirac monopoles (those characterized by the first homotopy group of G, the fundamental group of the gauge group G) is made using the definition of an ordered integral of a path-dependent curvature over a surface. This integral is similar to that found in the non-Abelian Stokes theorem. The implications of de Rham’s theorems for non-Abelian monopoles are shown to be similar to the Abelian case.

## Force-Free Magnetic Fields: Solutions, Topology and Applications

World Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 1996

After an introductory chapter concerned with the history of force-free magnetic fields, and the relation of such fields to hydrodynamics and astrophysics, the book examines the limits imposed by the virial theorem for finite force-free configurations. Various techniques are then used to find solutions to the field equations. The fact that the field lines corresponding to these solutions have the common feature of being “twisted”, and may be knotted, motivates a discussion of field line topology and the concept of helicity. The topics of field topology, helicity, and magnetic energy in multiply connected domains make the book of interest to a rather wide audience. Applications to solar prominence models, type-II superconductors, and force-reduced magnets are also discussed. The book contains many figures and a wealth of material not readily available elsewhere.

(Force-Free Magnetic Fields at Amazon)

pdf:

Marsh_Force-Free_Magnet_Fields_Solutions_ Topology_ Applications

## Helicity and Electomagnetic Field Topology

Helicity and Electromagnetic Field Topology is a chapter in *Advanced Electromagnetism: Foundations, Theory and Applications, *edited by Terence W. Barrett and Dale M. Grimes (World Scientific, 1995).

Link to the book:

http://books.google.com/books/about/Advanced_Electromagnetism.html?id=lA8tgLMRu2kC

## Flux Flow and Flux Cutting in Type-II Superconductors Carrying a Longitudinal Current

Phys. Rev. B Vol. 50, p. 571 (1994) (PDF)

A heuristic model of flux flow and vortex cutting that does not imply a build up of longitudinal flux is given for type-II superconducting cylinders carrying a current in the presence of an axial magnetic field.