Problems with the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics date back to attempts by Max Born, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, as well as many others in the 1920s to continue to employ the classical concept of a particle in the context of the quantum world. The experimental observations at the time and the assumption that the classical concept of a particle was to be preserved have led to an enormous literature on the foundations of quantum mechanics and a great deal of confusion then and now among non-physicists and students in any field that involves quantum theory. It is the historical approach to the teaching of quantum mechanics that is at the root of the problem.
Spacetime is the arena within which quantum mechanical phenomena take place. For this reason, several Appendices are devoted to the nature of spacetime as well as to topics that can help us understand it such as vacuum fluctuations, the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation.
Because of the success of quantum mechanical calculations, those who wish to understand the foundations of the theory are often given the apocryphal advice, “just ignore the issue and calculate”. It is hoped that this book will help dispel some of the dismay, frustration, and confusion among those who refuse to take to heart this admonition.
The equations describing the two-dimensional vortices first described by Chaplygin in 1899 and 1903 are shown to have solutions of higher order that differ from a simple dipole. It is also shown that for these higher-order vortices a very small asymmetry dramatically changes the topology of the stream function. These vortices could be important for understanding the phenomenon of atmospheric blocking.
Variation in total solar irradiance is thought to have little effect on the Earth’s surface temperature because of the thermal time constant—the characteristic response time of the Earth’s global surface temperature to changes in forcing. This time constant is large enough to smooth annual variations but not necessarily variations having a longer period such as those due to solar inertial motion; the magnitude of these surface temperature variations is estimated.
Modern developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics have significant implications for the origins of life. The reasons for this are closely related to a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics recently found for entropy production during irreversible evolution of a given system such as self-replicating RNA. This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to these developments.
Dark matter, first postulated by Jacobus Kapteyn in 1922 and later by Fritz Zwicky in 1933, has remained an enigma ever since proof of its existence was confirmed in 1970 by Vera Rubin and Kent Ford by plotting the rotation curve for the Andromeda galaxy. Here, some concepts from string theory and topological change in quantum cosmology are used to formulate a new model for dark matter. The density profiles of dark matter halos are often modeled as an approximate solution to the Lane-Emden equation. Using the model proposed here for dark matter, coupled with previous work showing that the approximate solution to the Lane-Emden equation can be an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, provides a new insight into the possible nature of dark matter.
Dolphin cognitive capabilities have been explored by investigating their neural anatomy, their social behavior in the wild, and by analysis of their complex vocalizations used for communication and environmental perception. After a brief introduction to dolphin hearing, sounds, and neurophysiology, and an even briefer discussion of sound propagation in the ocean, an analysis is given of some representative vocalizations. It is also shown that Mathematica offers a tool for easily synthesizing dolphin-like sounds that could be as basis for constructing a pidgin type language for human-dolphin communication.
This book addresses the incentives to develop nuclear weapons, what it takes to do so, and some of the technical aspects of nuclear and ballistic missile programs. It uses the North Korean program as an example. It also addresses the associated policy issues.
To read the front matter through Chapter 1, click on the link below.
This book is an attempt to show the majesty of the immense journey from the coming into being of the universe to the emergence and evolution of life. While it begins with the birth of the universe and the subsequent formation of the matter making up the stars and planets, it is the four and a half billion years since the formation of our sun and its planets that are the main focus of the book.
Part I covers the coming into existence of the universe; Part II the beginning of life on the early Earth; Part III the emergence of consciousness and intelligence; and Part IV, the immense journey of the universe beyond Earth. Part V addresses the problems raised by the emergence of higher-order consciousness in human beings as captured by the phrase “the human condition”.